Saturday, July 20, 2019
Development of an Online Crime Management System (OCMS) Case study of the Nigerian Police Force OYEKUNLE OYEBOLA COMFORT Abstract The aim of this project and implementation is to develop interactive online crime management system which is easily accessible to the public taking a cognizance of the Nigeria Police Force crime management approach. The accessibility of the public is to complain or even report a crime to the police stations is relatively low going by the fear of the harassment by the police department as well as endemic corruption in the system. The project and implementation titled Ã¢â¬Å"online crime management systemÃ¢â¬ taking cognizance of the Nigeria Police Force is a web basedapplication which manages and control the information transportation with respect to a particular location. The approach will provide avenue for escalating crimes, making complaints, account disappeared persons, show fugitive details, show missing individuals and possessions, report theft, manage reported crimes among other things. The project procedures precisely looks into the crime recognition and avoidance. The user interfaces have been planned using the DOT Net technologies. The standards of security and data protective mechanism have been given a big choice for proper usage. The application takes care of different modules and their associated reports, which are produced as per the applicable strategies and standards that are put forwarded by the administrative staff. Introduction With the rapid growth in telecommunication industry that gives room for multiple access, there is need for implementation of digitized crime management system for more efficiency. Real time crime management is directly proportional to the class of security optimization which reduces the crime as well as social vices in the society With increasing population, it is very paramount to initiate an efficient crime control/management technique to maximize the security throughput as well as effective information technology utilization in providing necessary security cover for the general public. Online crime management system is employed to maximize effective security implementation. Serious crime grew to nearly epidemic proportions, mainly in Lagos and other urbanized areas categorized by speedy development and change, by stark economic inequality and deprivation, by social disorganization, and by inadequate government service and law enforcement capabilities. The situation sees the urban area more policed with around 25 percent of the population lived. The public distrust of the law enforcement agencies happened to be the major reason for underreporting of crimes. Annual crime rates fluctuated around 200 per 100,000 population in Nigeria until the early l960s and then steadily increased to more than 300 per 100,000 by the mid-1970s. Accessible data from the 1980s specified a continuing increase. Overall conveyed crimes rose from nearly 211,000 in 1981 to between 330,000 and 355,000 during 1984-85. Although serious crime usually constituted the larger category, minor crimes and offenses accounted for most of the increase. Crimes against property generally accounted for more than half the offenses, with thefts, burglary, and breaking and entering covering 80 to 90 percent in most years. Assaults established 70 to 75 percent of all crimes against persons. The British High Commission in Lagos cited more than 3,000 cases of falsifications yearly. In the late 1980s, the crime wave was aggravated by deteriorating economic circumstances and by the ineptitude, incompetence, and dishonesty of police, military, and customs personnel who conspired and collaborated with offenders or actually involved in criminal manner. Most of the crimes committed usually occur due to delay in conveying incidence report to the relevant information owner. The design of a system based on web application provides fast link to the records maintained and must interpret the significant reviews about the security condition in other to reduce the crime. It is predictable to centralize the organization of information in Crime for the main objectives of fast and efficient sharing of critical information across all Police Stations in the country. Initially, the system will be implemented across Cities and Towns and later on, be interlinked so that a Police detective can access information across all records in the state thus helping speedy and successful completion to cases. The System would also be used to generate information for pro-active and preventive measures for fighting crime. The project has been planned to be having the view of distributed design, with centralized storage of the database. The application for the storage of the data has been planned with the usage of the constructs of SQL server. The objective of the project and implementation was to develop a site in which any citizen can report crimes. The Crime Management and Reporting System make the crime reporting easier providing effective documentation as well managing the crime history. This project and implementation will be useful for the Nigeria Police Department and other law enforcement agencies and parastatals. The home page provides the login capability for both the registered users and administrators. Only the Administrators in-charge of different Police Stations will be able to login to their home pages. The citizen could only report crimes and missing person. The public response to official misconduct was to take matters into its own hands persons and property while enjoying the facilities being provided to the unregistered citizen. Generally, most police departments in the developed nations have recorded substantial progress in using ICT in management and service delivery whereas their counter parts in the less developed nations have not. This has enabled the police stations in developed countries to provide improved service delivery to its citizens as well as improved interaction with its citizens. The resulting benefits have been increased transparency, cost reduction among other benefits. However, ICT has not yet been fully utilized by the police departments in developing nations including our country thus resulting to poor service delivery to the public. Crime is part of human activities and needs to be managed. No human society has ever been totally free of deviants and it is unlikely that society will ever be. The more populated and complex a society becomes the wider the range of antisocial conducts that must be controlled by the government through the armed forces and other agencies the Police Force. The incident-based system reports on a much broader range of crimes and includes data on the circumstances of the crime, the victim, and the defendant. The current crime reporting system is faced with several difficulties as there is no instant means of reporting crime other than telephone calls, messaging or perhaps face-to-face which is usually cumbersome especially where the reporter wishes to keep anonymity. The proposed crime reporting system aims to assist the Nigerian Police in their bid to solve crimes with timely and useful information about criminals and/or their mode of operations so as to nip in the bud criminal activitie s in a given locality. Finally, a prototype crime reporting system was designed that relies on four reporting forms: a complaint or dispatch reporting form, a crime event report form, follow-up investigation report form, and an arrest report form. The system consists of three functional modules: a data capture module, a report management and control module, and a data utilization module. Future work on crime reporting system can be tailored towards accessibility (mobile version), awareness and improvement on the usage. The rate at which information is transmitted from one end to another through a given system has significantly increased. The success of an organization depends largely on the rate at which information is exchanged within the organization and also on how safe the information/data transmission process is. The attitude of workers to work also affects the success and growth of any organization. 0Different components in this project and operation included visitorÃ¢â¬â¢s module, registered userÃ¢â¬â¢s module, and administrator module. The visitorÃ¢â¬â¢s module will inundate the visitor to view latest broadcast (latest news update) that have been provided by the administrator. The news is filtered with respect to the visitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ location. The registered user module provides theclientwith the facility for reporting crimes, missing persons, view most wanted persons, making complaints etc. The administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s module provides facility for full administration of the website by responding to clientrequests, it also allows for adding new admin, managing most wanted persons and missing persons, managing hot news and crimes and several other functionality. PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION With the high increase in population in the country with several regions being properly planned for good access road and other social amenities, the economy has negatively been influenced. This has seen its citizens indulging in lots of businesses in order to earn a living. This makes them so much busy to a point that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get time to do some of their responsibilities such as reporting crime. Figure 1.1 Lagos city showing unplanned roads with minimal social amenity In most cases the officials result to harassing the citizens reporting the crimes and if there is a way to report crimes without having to go to police stations then this problem could be avoided. At other times when one reports about a missing person or property, this gets only to the police station where you have reported but donÃ¢â¬â¢t get to other police stations all over the County or to a larger extent and this narrows down the area of investigation. In spite of the development of Information Technology, little study has been done to analyze the problems affectingthe performanceof the Police. Figure 1.2Reports of Police inefficiency and harassment Crime is part of human activities and needs to be managed. No human society has ever been totally free of deviants and it is unlikely that society will ever be. The more populated and complex a society becomes the wider the range of anti-social conduct that must be controlled by government using police power. The incident-based system reports on a much broader range of crimes and includes data on the circumstances of the crime, the victim, and the defendant. The current crime reporting system is faced with several difficulties as there is no instant means of reporting crime rather than telephone calls, messaging or perhaps face-to-face which is always cumbersome in a case the reporter might want to keep anonymity. To strengthen crime reporting system, an online system is enhanced to fully take the responsibility of reporting crime in a manner that will be useful to the Nigerian Police Force (NPF). For instance, in cases involving property crime the incident-based system will report o n the: type and description of the article; its value; type of loss (e.g., stolen, vandalized); type of victim (e.g., individual, business); And location of crime (e.g., convenience store, residence). Criminologist and ICT Engineers are always at loggerhead over the technological advancement in Crime management which it is widely believe to be wasteful with little or no emphasis on the efficiency. They both believe the present system of crime management is faulty and needs redefinition. While Criminologist argue on security signal basis, the engineers define crime management on what is obtainable. Research Objectives and Significance The sudden growth in the telecommunication provider providing wireless access has made the internet more accessible. With more demand for intelligent crime management system The aim of CRIS is to assist the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) in their bid to solve crimes with timely and useful information about criminals and/or their mode of operations so as to nip in the bud criminal activities in a given locality. The objectives of the research work are as stated below: To provide a deterministic crime reporting model To create a distributed data warehouse for crime reporting based on the model. The enhanced data quality of the incident-based reporting system will be of significant benefit to state and local governing bodies, criminal justice agencies, and the public. Data from the incident-based system will enhance both strategic and tactical decision making in criminal justice. Because incident-based data will provide a more accurate picture of a communitys crime patterns, decisions regarding law enforcement, judicial, and correctional resources can be made based on empirical data. Similarly, the level of detail provided by incident-based data can assist law enforcement agencies and the community to identify crime problems in their community such as: crime hotspots Ã¢â¬ ¢ populations who are at risk and Drug and alcohol problems. Crime prevention strategies may then be developed and evaluated based on empirical evidence. This study will also assist policy analyst to understand both factors that impedes the efficiency and effectiveness of the police and the ways by which the situation could be improved upon so as to bring crime and disorders in the society to its barest minimum. Finally, this study will go a long way in contributing to the knowledge of police work. Besides, other researchers and students in higher institutions especially those in sociology department can derive various secondary data from this study. Crime Sensing The root causes of crime [are] poverty, unemployment, underemployment, racism, poor health care, bad housing, weak schools, mental illness, alcoholism, single-parent families, teenage pregnancy, and a society of selfishness and greed. Online Crime Management system is a web based application that provides avenue as well as gateway for reporting online crimes, lodge complaints, announce missing persons, inform the general public the fugitive details mailing with platform to chart online and send emails. There is no restriction on the number of concurrent connections to the web server. Every user must subscribe to the web server by registering on the server. Existing System In the existing system only we can see the details of particular information about the police stations in our state, the existing system has more workload for the authorized person, but in the case of Proposed System, the user can registered in our site and send the crime report and complaint about a particular city or person. Drawbacks of Existing System More man power. Time consuming. Consumes large volume of pare work. Needs manual calculations. No direct role for the higher officials. Damage of machines due to lack of attention. To avoid all these limitations and make the working more accurately the system needs to be computerized. Proposed System The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities. The proposed system can overcome all the limitations of the existing system. The system provides proper security and reduces the manual work. The existing system has several disadvantages and many more difficulties to work well. The proposed system tries to eliminate or reduce these difficulties up to some extent. The proposed system will help the user to reduce the workload and mental conflict. The proposed system helps the user to work user friendly and he can easily do his jobs without time lagging. Expected Advantages of Proposed System The system is very simple in design and to implement. The system requires very low system resources and the system will work in almost all configurations. It has got following features Ensure data accuracyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Proper control of the higher officials. Reduce the damages of the machines. Minimize manual data entry. Minimum time needed for the various processing. Greater efficiency. Better service. User friendliness and interactive. Minimum time required.
Secluded in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, is a place called Sashy, a wonderful, perfect society. It is always peaceful and nothing bad ever happens on the island. The island's air is always fresh and free of any toxins or pollution. Temperature on the South side of Sashy is always warm with no humidity present. On the North side of Sashy the weather is always perfect for winter activities, the temperature is just cold enough for the snow to fall. The North side of the island is full of steep, snow-covered mountains. On the South side of the Sashy clean, sandy beaches cover the land. The ocean water is crystal clear and warm. Sashy is the perfect place to live. On the island, every person is treated as equals. No one person thinks or acts as if they are better than another. There is no racism or sexism present, all types of people reside here and get along together. Living on the island is people from all different cultures and backgrounds. Everyone lives in peace with no fightin g, violence, crime, or war. The people of Sashy, called Sashians, do not judge each other by their appearance or whom they interacted with. There are many diverse religions in this community. Each one does not criticize the others for their beliefs. Once a month all the different religions get together at the island community building and congregate together to discuss their viewpoints and thoughts on their faith. On this island there is no poverty, disease, or hunger. Everyone has plenty of money...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Exploring Methodological Individualism ABSTRACT: I defend the truth of the principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences. I do so by criticizing mistaken ideas about the relation between individual people and social entities held by earlier defenders of the principle. I argue, first, that social science is committed to the intentional stance; the domain of social science, therefore, coincides with the domain of intentionally described human action. Second, I argue that social entitites are theoretical terms, but quite different from the entities used in the natural sciences to explain our empirical evidence. Social entities (such as institutions) are conventional and open-ended constructions, the applications of which is a matter of judgment, not of discovery. The terms in which these social entities are constructed are the beliefs, expectations and desires, and the corresponding actions of individual people. The relation between the social and the individual 'levels' differs fundamentally from that bet ween, say, the cellular and the molecular in biology. Third, I claim that methodological individualism does not amount to a reduction of social science to psychology; rather, the science of psychology should be divided. Intentional psychology forms in tandom with the analysis of social institutions, unitary psycho-social science; cognitive psychology tries to explain how the brain works and especially how the intentional stance is applicable to human behavior. The principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences has its origin in the Austrian school of economics and was introduced into the philosophy of social science in general by Friedrich Hayek and Karl Popper. Hayek was the first to us... ... the Aristotelian Society 76, 1-27. Rosenberg, Alexander (1980), Sociobiology and the preemption of social science. Baltmore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Ruben, David-Hillel (1985), The metaphysics of the social world. London etc.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Stich, Stephen (1983), From folk psychology to cognitive science. The case against belief. Cambridge, Mass./London: MIT Press. Thornhill, Nancy Wilmsen (1991), 'An evolutionary analysis of rules regulating human inbreeding and marriage', Brain and Behavioral Sciences 14, 247-261. Tuomela, Raimo (1984), A theory of social action. Dordrecht etc.: D. Reidel. Ã¢â¬â (1995), The importance of us. A philosophical study of basic social notions. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. Watkins, John (1952), 'Ideal types and historical explanation', British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3, 22-43.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
How we act or react in difficult situations defines our persona. Sometimes these situations provide opportunities to be a hero. After reading Grant WigginsÃ¢â¬â¢s own definition of a hero, it is apparent that Grant becomes a hero. Grant states, Ã¢â¬Å"A hero is someone who does something for other people. He does something that other men donÃ¢â¬â¢t and cant to. He is different from other men. He is above other men. No matter who those other men are, the hero, no matter who he is, is above them.Ã¢â¬ Grant becomes a hero by earning an education to become a teacher, undergoing psychological changes, and counseling Jefferson to die with dignity. A hero is different from others and does something others cannot. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s drive to defy stereo type, become a teacher, and contribute to the community demonstrates that he is a hero. Grant is an African American son of cane-cutters who worked on a Louisiana plantation. He grew up working a labor job and was expected by society to continue as a laborer. Through determination he was able to escape his surroundings to earn a college education. He returns as an educated university man hoping to make a positive impact on society, but is still looked down upon. College gave him a new perspective and educated way of speaking and thinking, but he was still not equal to the whites. Grant continued to persevere through segregation and unfair treatment. He maintained his goal of making a difference by teaching in a church without desks or other supplies. Grants ability to escape his environment and stereotyping, earn an education, and return to his community to make changes, makes him different from others in his community. Grant was different from others and taught in conditions that most could not. Grant is a hero. Grant proved himself a hero, not only by overcoming struggles with racism, but with overcoming struggles within his own mind. A hero is above all other men. Many times a change must take place for man to become a hero above all other men. Throughout the novel, Grant undergoes psychological changes that allow him to become a hero. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s life is filled with rage for the way he is treated by whites. Eventually this rage becomes self-loathing and cynicism, because he feels he is taking the unjust treatment from whites lying down. This downward spiral causes him to alienate himself from people he loves and feel that the community is helpless. During a conversation with Vivian, Grant says, he cannot face Jefferson because he cannot face himself and his own life. Vivian helps Grant realize that he has left the South in the past, has returned, and still has not left. This helps him realize that he is there for a reason. Another change happens when he accepts the task of helping Jefferson. At first Grant is angry and believes that Miss Emma wants him to perform a difficult and maybe impossible task of convincing Jefferson to die with defiance and character. After accepting this task and dealings with Jefferson, Grant realizes what a hero is and he can have an impact on the community. Finally when Grant breaks down in front of his students he realizes that he is ready to connect with the children that he has been so strict with. Many heroes have to overcome an inner struggle to realize their potential for greatness. Eventually through his interactions with his family, Vivian, Jefferson, and students he realizes to view everyone positively which gives him the strength and courage to make an impact in his community. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s actions with Jefferson embody the heroic effort of doing something for someone else. Jefferson is thought of as an animal, and even compared to a Ã¢â¬Å"hogÃ¢â¬ . Grant wants Jefferson to believe that he is more than convict and just a black man. Grant wants Jefferson to believe that he can change society. Grant visits Jefferson regularly, councils him, gives him a radio, and hope. Before JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Grant confides in him and says, Ã¢â¬Å"My faith is in you, Jefferson.Ã¢â¬ Through his efforts and faith, Jefferson completes his transformation into a dignified human being. GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives change throughout the novel as a result of his interactions with his family, Vivian, Jefferson, and his students. When given the opportunity to be a hero, he accepts and becomes a hero. His escaping his environment and stereotyping to become a teacher, overcoming psychological struggles, and helping Jefferson die with dignity proves that he is a hero in the novel.
One of the virtu exclusivelyy strategic cases and concerns facing our country forthwith, and shutdown-to- complete history, is racial discrimination. Many books and blasts generate been written and actual that deal with the approximate and realistic case of racialism in America today and how it affects American nine and sight from alone(a) walks of life, and no claim has d virtuoso(a) so in such a great way as settle. This read follows the stories of sextuple characters in Los Angeles, all of whom deal with maven aspect of racialism or anformer(a).For example, in that location is a legal philosophy officer who is antiblack against blacks because of his father, a district attorney and his married muliebrity that deal with racialism after cardinal black men carjack them genius night, and a black earthly concern whose fellow is involved in gang violence. each storyline dramatizes one aspect of racism or a nonher, and how different mint react to it, and the rea intelligences rear end racism in our country. Crash is a well-made film that is worth(predicate) for our corporation because it isnt afraid to involve very serious and harsh questions astir(predicate) the way we view each other, the rea boys behind racism in American society, and questions how remotethest weve act as a society as it concerns racism.Crash is an interesting ascertain at how Americans view each other based upon ply, even when we do non mean to or be non able to truly contact our proclaim deeply rooted assumptions astir(predicate) hoi polloi based upon the way they look. In one scene in the movie, deuce four-year-old black men atomic number 18 walk of life down the street philosophizing active how wrong it is that people automatically dread them because they perceive their race and non who they unfeignedly are.We, the audience, immediately agree with their ideas and begin to receive sorry for them because of the pressures they face in soci ety however, the scene quickly turns to violence when they take in discover hoagys and carjack a five-year-old politician and his wife, who had been eying them suspiciously because of their race. In this instance, the assumptions of the two white people were correct because these preadolescent men were carjackers, throwing a whole unfermented aspect of racism and societys fears into the mix.This scene says a lot closely our society and how people make assumptions some each other based upon race, further similarly is harshly honest somewhat the statistics involving black, inner-city young men in Los Angeles and how many a(prenominal) fall into a life of crime. The reasons for this are also delved into in this film, with scenes showing the rough water of ghetto life and the poverty that some fail in, with broken families and prejudice. In the film, Detective graham flour Waters, and African-American, opinions ashamed by his family, who consists of a get down who is a ddicted to drugs and a brother who is aliment a life of crime.This film also tackles the issue of why racism develops in our society and how those who has racialist beliefs become that way. In one storyline that is developing a police officer is racist, and we see that he has been raised by a racist father, who is now dying of cancer. throughout the film we find ourselves feeling contempt for these characters because of their individualized opinions about race, but at the end the police officer has to go to an redress company to ask for medical support for his dying father and speaks to an African-American woman at the agency.Knowing about his prejudice, she immediately denies his father any help, leading the son to explain about his how his father had everlastingly employed minorities but when minority own businesses began to get preference, his company could non survive. The sons bitterness about race seems to postulate stemmed from his fathers problems. We begin to underst and the circumstances contact the development of racism in these characters, and feel torn between our discretion and our disfavour of racism. Another instance is seen with the young duplicate that has been carjacked.The woman becomes frightened of African-Americans, and indeed all minorities, because of the two men who pointed a gun at her yet, in the end she realizes that the kindest someone to her is her Hispanic maid. While we do not believe in racism, this film does not make it so easy to pick out who is right and who is wrong because it develops all aspects of the peoples experiences.The main purpose of this film seems to be to raise questions about how far we as a society have come in terms of racism and whether or not weve overcome this issue in our country. The many different storylines that are taking place throughout the film begs us to look deeper into racism and how it affects everyone in America, especially in large several(a) cities like Los Angeles where many d ifferent races and ethnicities make love side by side.We also see racism between and towards other ethnicities the iniquity that the Persian storeowner has for the Hispanic locksmith, the bigotry shown by one of the black carjackers towards the Chinamen that are be smuggled in the van he takes, and the projections of the district attorneys wife onto the Hispanic locksmith, Daniel. The one storyline that develops throughout the film that is the finale of the film revolves nearly a young rookie police officer who picks up an African-American man who is hitchhiking.Throughout the film he has been the one who tries desperately to not be disfavor and to see everyone equally, but at the end his own inner fears cause him to misconstrue the young man and shoot him out of fear. Officer Hanson thinks that the young man is breathing out to pull a gun on him, but instead pulls out a figure of Saint Christopher. If the man had not been black, the rookie officer would not have had the inst inct to fear him however, both of these characters throughout the film were the least prejudiced of all of the characters.This idea becomes interesting as an important aspect of this film because it is almost a metaphor of the United States and how we are hard desperately to not admit that racism is a problem but in the end, it rightfully is. This is the most important nucleotide of this film because it is the one that is closest to the pragmatism of life in the United States and how racism plays a role in society.Throughout the film Crash in that respect are many instances where we see racism depicted in a realistic and harsh way, proving to us that racism is very very much an issue that is haunting the American people even today. The magic of this film is that it really brings the issue of racism away from further being black or white, carry to light the gray area that exists.We as Americans are torn between our understanding of certain reasons for racism versus disappoin tment that there is still racism existing in our society. This film is very entertaining because of the noticeable cast and the different storylines that all come together into a very informative, careful way, but also enlightening as it achieves its goal of affecting the audience and their beliefs about racism in our society.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
The anesthesia technician & technologistÃ¢â¬â¢s manual: All you need to know for study and reference Essay
Improvements of AnesthesiaIntroduction From nineteenth century, in that respect have been important and never- polish offing emendments in the field of honor of medicine in join States, particularly in discovery of microorganisms as the root ca theatrical role of disease and anesthesia. The improvements have been of great importance in facilitating effective, convenient, and safest methods of treatment. The piece of music below discusses anesthesia improvements, and importance of its improvement in treatment.Improvements of anesthesia The direct use of volatile anesthetics and intent cold were the most important steps in anesthesia in nineteenth century. The steps were employ in surgical sites during treatment of traumatic injuries. This was execut competent by bringing down local temperature of bole tissues by the application of salt and ice during the operating surgeon. However, to think the cold projection was extremely analyzable when victimisation salt and ice. Thi s gave rise to new techniques such as topical application of Dutch oil and vaporization of ether and ethylene chloride by fumigation and spraying. Since then, in that respect was continuous discovery of more anesthetic liquids such as amyl hydrate and vaginal Dutch. Having improved the anesthetic liquids, on that point was a major challenge in restriction of sprays used. As a result, on that point came need to improve the jet, which was possible by designing different systems of nozzles. virtually to the end of the century, some medical practitioners recommended the improvements best for surgeon but many individual cal lead for alternative approach, especially in minor surgery (Walter, 2014). All the guidance from 19th century to transition into the twentieth century, there have been many improvements of anesthesia care (Woodworth, 2012). For instance, the roughhewn practice discussed supra changed by trigger of cocain around 1884.Later in 1934, the sodium Pentothal was in troduced for intravenous anesthetic administration. Despite its many challenges associated with its negative attitude effects when administered to some patients, it remained the most effective until 1977 when Dr.Brian Kay introduced muscleman relaxants and refuge endotracheal tubes. In 1980s, pulse oximetry and end tidal carbon dioxide were introduced that facilitated EKG observe.Use of the improvement in medical practice like a shot Some of above discussed improvements are still used across the United States. For instance, the improvement of EKG monitoring makes it possible to make do neuromuscular blockade .In addition, the use of muscle relaxants and rubber endotracheal tubes makes it easy for anesthesiologists to monitor the condition of the patient .The monitoring of the patients condition primarily involves checking of blood pressure as well as pulse rate. Being able to process EEG measurement, end tidal CO2 and pulse oximetry have made it possible to measure out the depth of anesthesia. The monitoring incorporated with some of discussed advances has led into the best anesthetic practice by meliorate patients safety. Indisputably, there is significant from the use of advances though some of the anesthetic practices used today for surgery have changed tremendously. Unfortunately, while bringing the changes in transformation of anesthesia surgery, the dramatic change in body knowledge and skills poseed from the improvements has resulted to inseparable and complex medical disciplines.Future developments in anesthesia parenthesis from the above important improvements discussed such as introduction of pulse oximeter in aesthesia practices in United States today, there are many cases of mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. It is therefore obvious that the discoveries are not the end of the road but the push to new high gear .However, with improved, optimal, and creative anesthetic management evident in United States ,there is hope of continued i mprovement to develop most safer and effective anesthesia practices while stabbing down the pressure from medical economics. This will completely be possible if anesthesiologists rise to the challenge.ReferencesWalter. (2014). In cyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp//www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482821/puerperal-feverWoodworth, G., & Kirsch, J. (2012).The anesthesia technician & technologists manual All you need to know for study and reference. Philadelphia Wolters Kluwer health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Source document